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Multisatellite mission directly observes electron acceleration by fastmoving electricfield waves

first_img Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. One area of research for astrophysicists involves studying what happens when the solar wind collides with the magnetic field that surrounds many planets and stars (an area called the magnetopause). Scientists are eager to learn as much as possible about the solar wind as it may one day be used as a resources for pushing future craft into the far realms of space. In this new effort, the researchers were part of a team working on the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission—where four satellites were sent into orbit circling the planet in a tight tetrahedral formation as their sensors measure magnetic and electric fields along with ions and electrons. Of specific interest was what happens when the solar wind and the Earth’s magnetic field run directly opposite of one another, in a region known as the X-line.The researchers report that the satellite group passed the X-line at one point late year, on the dayside of the magnetopause and into a section of a wave known as a time domain structure (TDS)—they have been observed many times before, but this time, because of the short distance between the satellites (approximately 10 km) the researchers could track the speed of the TDS, which allowed them to see an acceleration of as much as 50 percent in the speed of high energy electrons after the wave had moved on. These measurements confirm the theory that the TDS was able to cause particles to speed up, a finding which could have implications for engineers designing sensitive equipment for satellites, or perhaps even high flying aircraft. This artist’s drawing shows the four MMS spacecraft flying through the magnetopause, where the magnetic field of the solar wind (yellow-orange) confronts the Earth’s magnetic field (blue). At this boundary, magnetic field reconnection converts the field energy into particle energy. MMS has observed electric-field waves that likely play a role in this conversion. Credit: NASA/MMS, via Physics (Phys.org)—An international team of researchers working on a project that involves monitoring and studying data received from a group of satellites that has been stationed very close to one another in orbit, has observed for the first time, electrons moving faster due to interactions with certain speedy electric-field waves, which suggests the possibility of such waves playing a role in the creation of high-energy particles. In their paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters, the team describes their observational data regarding a collision between the solar wind and a time domain structure and the impact it had on high energy electrons. More information: F. S. Mozer et al. Magnetospheric Multiscale Satellite Observations of Parallel Electron Acceleration in Magnetic Field Reconnection by Fermi Reflection from Time Domain Structures, Physical Review Letters (2016). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.145101ABSTRACTThe same time domain structures (TDS) have been observed on two Magnetospheric Multiscale Satellites near Earth’s dayside magnetopause. These TDS, traveling away from the X line along the magnetic field at 4000  km/s, accelerated field-aligned ∼5  eV electrons to ∼200  eV by a single Fermi reflection of the electrons by these overtaking barriers. Additionally, the TDS contained both positive and negative potentials, so they were a mixture of electron holes and double layers. They evolve in ∼10  km of space or 7 ms of time and their spatial scale size is 10–20 km, which is much larger than the electron gyroradius (<1  km) or the electron inertial length (4 km at the observation point, less nearer the X line).center_img Journal information: Physical Review Letters © 2016 Phys.org Citation: Multi-satellite mission directly observes electron acceleration by fast-moving electric-field waves (2016, April 7) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2016-04-multi-satellite-mission-electron-fast-moving-electric-field.html The solar wind breaks through the Earth’s magnetic fieldlast_img read more

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Sampling bias might be distorting view of upheaval due to global warming

first_img Journal information: Nature Climate Change As the planet heats up, some areas are going to become hotter and drier, and if that leads to a reduction in resources available to the people living in those areas, the result is likely to be bloodshed. Some people inside and out of the science community have even gone so far as to suggest that we have already seen examples—famine and war in Darfur, or on a larger scale, the ongoing Syrian civil war. But, the researchers with this effort point out, making predictions regarding future conflicts must be based on unbiased research efforts, something that has not been done very well so far.The team combed through over 100 papers published from 1990 to 2017 meant to offer insights into the link between global warming and warfare and report finding substantial bias. They found, for example, that much of the research was focused on headline-making conflicts rather than small-scale affairs. They also noted that most of the conflicts occurred in areas where people spoke English, making it easier for the researchers, but leaving out many areas that likely should have studied but did not. They also found that many of the studies focused on areas that were already experiencing conflict, such as Syria and Sudan. But, perhaps most strikingly, they found that areas of study were often not even those that have been deemed more likely to be geographically impacted by a warming planet.They conclude by suggesting biased research in such a context could lead to “reproduction of colonial stereotypes”—a reference to English-speaking countries that were once part of the British empire. Credit: CC0 Public Domain Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. More information: Courtland Adams et al. Sampling bias in climate–conflict research, Nature Climate Change (2018). DOI: 10.1038/s41558-018-0068-2AbstractCritics have argued that the evidence of an association between climate change and conflict is flawed because the research relies on a dependent variable sampling strategy. Similarly, it has been hypothesized that convenience of access biases the sample of cases studied (the ‘streetlight effect’). This also gives rise to claims that the climate–conflict literature stigmatizes some places as being more ‘naturally’ violent. Yet there has been no proof of such sampling patterns. Here we test whether climate–conflict research is based on such a biased sample through a systematic review of the literature. We demonstrate that research on climate change and violent conflict suffers from a streetlight effect. Further, studies which focus on a small number of cases in particular are strongly informed by cases where there has been conflict, do not sample on the independent variables (climate impact or risk), and hence tend to find some association between these two variables. These biases mean that research on climate change and conflict primarily focuses on a few accessible regions, overstates the links between both phenomena and cannot explain peaceful outcomes from climate change. This could result in maladaptive responses in those places that are stigmatized as being inherently more prone to climate-induced violence.center_img Citation: Sampling bias might be distorting view of upheaval due to global warming (2018, February 13) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-02-sampling-bias-distorting-view-upheaval.html Global warming poses substantial flood risk increase for Central and Western Europe A small team of researchers from The University of Melbourne, the Georg Eckert Institute and Freie Universität has found problems with research related to assessing the propensity for war amid environmental changes due to global warming. In their paper published in the journal Nature Climate Change, the group argues that much of current research on the topic suffers from several bias flaws. Cullen Hendrix with the University of Denver outlines the arguments by the research team in the same journal issue and suggests future research efforts will have to be refocused if they are to be useful in predicting future conflicts based on global warming projections. © 2018 Phys.orglast_img read more

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Play by play

first_imgSangeet Natak Akademi, National Academy of Music, Dance and Drama as part of the Delhi International Arts Festival is presented Dance and Music of Jammu and Kashmir from 5 – 10 November the  Meghdoot Theatre – I in the capital. This presentation was initiative by Sangeet Natak Akademi to support the artists of Jammu and Kashmir after the recent floods. After the recent devastation in Jammu and Kashmir caused by the floods, the artists from the region Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’appealed to the Akademi seeking an opportunity to perform. They shared how the flood disrupted their lives and work. Besides losing their loved ones they also lost their costumes, musical instruments and their stage properties.This presentation, with a view to reinstate the spirit of the artists and to connect them again to the mainstream audiences, was an initiative by Sangeet Natak Akademi to support the artists of Jammu and Kashmir after the recent floods. There are four groups with over 50 artists presenting dance, music and theatre of Jammu and Kashmir. These groups presented the regional art folk forms such as Bach Nagma, Aramen Pather, Bakarwal Pather, Dardh Pather, Damali, Assan Pather and Chhakri. The Sangeet Natak Akademi specialises  in the performing arts of the country and  also renders advice and assistance to the Government of India in the task of formulating and implementing policies and programmes in the field. Additionally, the Akademi carries a part of the responsibilities of the state for fostering cultural contacts between various regions in India, and between India and the world.last_img read more

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Artistes demand payment of dues no shooting for a day

first_imgKolkata: Shooting of Bengali soaps came to a standstill in various city studios today in response to a ceasework call by the Artist’s Forum demanding regularisation of their payment. Forum General Secretary and actor Arindam Ganguly said, actors arrived on the call time, put up costumes and make-up required for the shoot but refrained from taking part in the shootings on the floor. “We demand an early solution to the issue of outstanding payments of several serial artistes which had been uncleared for months,” Ganguly said. Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal life A serial actress said the ceasework call was given by the Forum in a whatsapp message signed by Arindam Ganguly and actor Prosenjit Chatterjee yesterday night. Chatterjee who visited a studio said he was hopeful of a breakthrough. A spokesman of the producers said talks were on to resolve the issue and they were hopeful of an early breakthrough. Shooting came to a halt in 7-8 studios, located across different areas of south Kolkata, due to the ceasework, the producers said. The Forum, an organisation of actors and actresses, has 2200 members.last_img read more

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Missouri assesses flood damage US South still imperiled

first_imgMissouri Governor Jay Nixon on Saturday toured communities ravaged by flooding that killed at least 31 people in several states and forced large-scale evacuations, as the danger of rising waters shifted to Arkansas and beyond.Nixon visited Eureka and Cape Girardeau in eastern Missouri, where floodwaters caused widespread damage, and announced the federal government had approved his request to declare an emergency to help with the massive cleanup and recovery now under way. Also Read – Nine hurt in accident at fireworks show in French resortThe governor described the scale of the flood damage as other worldly. “It’s almost as if you’re living on some other planet,” he said, standing near a growing pile of debris in a park in Eureka, about an hour’s drive west of St. Louis on the banks of the Meramec River, which flows into the Mississippi.“This is just a tiny fraction of the trail of destruction,” the governor told reporters. The National Weather Service reported Mississippi floodwaters in Illinois and Missouri began cresting and receding on Saturday after thousands of people had to be evacuated from their homes earlier in the week when the floods destroyed hundreds of structures. Retired Eureka homeowner Tracy Wolf, 58, spent the last three days trying to keep water away from the sides of his house with sandbags and out of his basement with vacuums. “Wednesday night it came in through the windows,” Wolf said. “We slept three hours the first night … I don’t even know what day it is.”last_img read more

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Utter chaos in two colleges as students with low attendance demand to

first_imgKolkata: Heramba Chandra College in Golpark and Gurudas College in Phoolbagan on Friday afternoon witnessed violent protests from students who pushed for permission to sit for the examinations despite poor attendance.Calcutta University’s main campus at College Street also saw protests from students of Jaipuria College and St. Paul’s College for the same reason. State Education minister Partha Chatterjee said: “This is the internal matter of the respective colleges. I have nothing to say.” Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal lifeStudents resorted to road blockade at Heramba Chandra College, resulting in traffic disruption and inconvenience to people travelling to other parts of the city from the South and vice-versa. A number of students with low attendance gathered in front of the college on Friday morning and tried to sit for talks with the principal of the college. However the college authorities made it clear that they have no role to play as the rules of Calcutta University do not allow a student to sit for examination if the attendance is below 60 percent. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Mercedes car in Kolkata, 2 pedestrians killedThe situation turned worse, with the students getting embroiled in a heated altercation with the police. When police tried to bring the situation under control, the students broke the police barricade and encroached on Golpark crossing and blocked the road. Most of the agitating students claimed that they had attended classes but roll calls were done in white paper and later, the attendance registers were not updated. Nabanita Chakraborty, principal of the college, said: “We have brought out the list of attendance for all the subjects that are taught in the morning section. It is clear from that who are eligible to sit for the examination. The reason for disallowing students has been mentioned in the list but they are insisting on the fact that they should be allowed.” The college authorities alleged that the agitators also tried to prevent eligible students from filling up forms. The classes of the evening section in the college was also called off due to the agitation. Meanwhile, a section of students at Gurudas College also staged a protest demonstration in front of the college gate, with the same demand. They were also demanding permission to sit for the examination, despite having low attendance.last_img read more

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Yoga may boost overall health of kids in care homes

first_imgPractising Kundalini yoga – which involves meditation, breathing exercises, chanting mantras and adapting certain postures – may help improve the health and psychological wellbeing of children in care homes, a new study has claimed.Researchers from the University of Nottingham in the UK found that children in care homes have a higher degree of physical and mental health needs than their not-in-care counterparts, and in comparison to children who are in other forms of care, such as foster care. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfThe study was carried out under the belief of ‘creative practice as mutual recovery’, and looked at the idea that shared creativity, collective experience and mutual benefit can promote resilience in mental health and well-being among communities that have been traditionally divided – for example children’s home staff and children.Researchers tested a 20-week Kundalini yoga programme in three children’s homes situated in the East Midlands.The programme was evaluated according to recruitment and retention rates, self-reporting questionnaires from the participants and semi-structured interviews. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsiveThe study shows that yoga practice in children’s homes, especially when participation is high, has the potential to encourage togetherness and mutuality and improve health and psychological outcomes for children in care, as well as within the workforce.All the participants reported that the study was personally meaningful and experienced both individual – like feeling more relaxed – and social benefits – for example feeling more open and positive. Individuals reported that the yoga sessions helped to show them beneficial exercises that they could use in various contexts, such as before going to bed, or during emotionally challenging times at work as well as at home.The social benefits were also far-reaching with some participants reporting that they felt more positive, open to others and, as a consequence, had seen an improvement in their social lives and out of work.Some staff and residents noticed that other people also interacted more positively with them.“The findings are very exciting as they suggest that the practice of Kundalini yoga, involving both staff and children in care, is a plausible intervention that can lead to individual and social benefits,” said Elvira Perez from University of Nottingham.“This could have potentially huge, wide-reaching benefits for children in care as well as for all the staff working in residential settings,” said Perez.“The study has generated a number of valuable guiding principles and recommendations that might underpin the development of any future intervention for children in care and the staff working in these homes,” Perez added.The study was published in The Journal of Children’s Services.last_img read more

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Kids who follow their interests build a happier tomorrow

first_imgA majority of parents feel their child’s interest was a reflection of their happiness, reveals a survey. The survey, conducted by Pinwi (Play-Interest-Wise), a data driven app for child development and smart parenting, revealed a growing awareness that focussing on a child’s interest vis-à-vis performance from an early age can lead to nurturing activities that can ensure happier adults tomorrow. On a sample size of over 800 respondents across India, 73 per cent of the parents felt their child’s interest was a reflection of their happiness; 16 per cent linked interest to hobbies and 11 per cent to aptitude. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfFurther findings revealed: 54 per cent parents had ‘somewhat of an idea’ about their child’s interests, while 20 per cent did not know what their children’s true interests were and the rest 26 per cent said they have a good idea about the interests of their child. Rachna Khanna, founder and CEO, Pinwi, said in a statement: “The findings of the survey throw up a vital point that while parents place a lot of emphasis on their child’s interest they are constantly struggling to keep up with the ever evolving interests of the child as these keep changing with age, time and social dynamics. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsiveParents rely on their instinctive understanding of their children’s interests, which is loosely based on day-to-day observations and clues they pick up during their interactions with them.” She also pointed out that one pursues activities that are more performance driven, then earns education degrees out of peer pressure, and usually takes up a career that is in demand but not always as per their liking.”Most people you meet will say they would have picked a different career path, given a choice. It is no surprise then that while these decisions fulfil us in the short run, in the long run they only lead to dissatisfaction and professional fatigue,” she said.last_img read more

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Answering the unanswered questions

first_imgIn a four-way conversation that took place at the India International Centre, Keki N. Daruwalla, Indian poet and short story writer, Namita Gokhale, Indian writer, publisher and festival director and Malashri Lal, writer and academic, former professor, Department of English, University of Delhi discussed with Deepa Agarwal, about the idea behind naming the book as ‘You Cannot Have All The Answers.’ ‘You Cannot Have All the Answers’, a collection of short stories takes on life’s unanswered questions while dealing with issues like trauma, sexuality and prejudice. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfDeepa Agarwal, before answering the queries, thanked Niyogi Books for publishing the title. She stated that she attempts to find the answers to her questions and her short stories are the evident outcome of this quest. ‘But it is not possible ever for one to find all the answers.’ And hence the title of the book.While referring to the popular folktales of Vikram and Vetal and Chandrakanta, Namita Gokhale praised the author as: ‘A sceptic and pragmatic writer yet rooted and grounded.’ She observed that Deepa Agarwal writes both for children and adult readers, and asked her: ‘How does it come when you write stories for children? Is there any particular discipline that you maintain while writing?’ Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsiveTo that Deepa responded that the treatment has to be different according to the age group of the readers. When writing for children, having five grandchildren, looking through their (children’s) eyes, and drawing from her own treasure trove of childhood memories characteristically help her in composing the stories. They have to be less ambiguous and more explanatory, unlike when writing for adults—when mystification and less disclosure makes the narration more interesting. To give the audience a taste of the short story collection in discussion, Malashri read out from one of the more ‘adult’ stories—’The Stuff of Our Dreams’—and lines like, “No dream is ever false…” and “Find the mad woman from the streets and find yourself…” resonated through the auditorium hall.Keki N. Daruwala read out from the end part of the story titled ‘The Crossing’. ‘Brilliant’ was the compliment he gave to this one. When Malashri prompted that he must have been able to relate more to the partition story, ‘The Cradle Song’, for his previous writings on the subject, he expressed that he had felt that this one must have been the most difficult story to write in the book because it is a fable set amidst a city. ‘It is very touching,’ he said, ‘and the best part of her (Deepa Agarwal’s) writing is that her treatment is original.’Malashri observed that the time zone of stories in ‘You cannot have all the answers’ expand over a long period of time and asked the author for the reason behind it. To that, the author replied: “Writing a story is like composing poetry. Memories overheard conversations and research play key roles.”last_img read more